Scope of Simulation
The simulation will include operational and transient behaviour
for advanced reactor types of PWRs, BWRs and PHWRs in the 600
MWe range. For PWRs, plants of vertical inverted U-bend steam
generators as those designed in the west and of horizontal steam
generators designed by the former Soviet Union will be covered.
Advanced means the generation of nuclear power plants
currrently under design or construction which use the culmination
of past design, development and operating experience and incorporate
evolutionary improvements and/or non-conventional changes.
For PWRs and PHWRs, the evolutionary improvements include
lower power density in the core and upgraded reliability for
the feedwater and emergency coolant supply. A non-conventional
design has used completely passive safety systems. For BWRs with
passive safety systems, the above advanced plant types will not
be covered. In particular, differences between the conventional
(engineered) safety designs and passive safety features in their
response to a design basis accident willl be demonstrated.
The software will use commonly available MS-DOS and compatible
Windows environment for Intel microprocessor-based personal computers.
The simulation program will be a desk-top version that can be
run on a PC with a Pentium configuration.
By using the simulation software, in conduction with the Training
Material, the following areas and reactor characteristics are
expected to be covered:
- Principle Types of Water Cooled Reactors:
Several Advanced Water-cooled Reactor designs in the 600 MWe
range will be covered. For PWRs, plants of vertical inverted
U-bend steam generators as those designed in the west and of
horizontal steam generators designed by the former Soviet Union
will be covered. Differences between the conventional plants
and PWR with passive safety features in their response to a design
basis accident will be demonstrated.
- Characteristics and Capabilities of Each Reactor Type:
The characteristics of each of these reactor types will be demonstrated
by their corresponding simulation models. The characteristics
- neutronics with reactivity control by rods and feedback
- heat transfer through the fuel cladding into the coolant
- reactor coolant thermal-hydraulics
- principle of the control systems
- Characteristics of Plant Components and Systems to be simulated
- Reactor Core
- Reactor Coolant System
- Emergency Core Cooling Systems (ECCS)
- Control Systems
- Simulation will be real time. For slow transients, the ability
to accelerate the simulation is included (up to 20 times real
- Simulations will include all normal and abnormal design basis
conditions relevant to the reactor type. This will include:
- Normal conditions
- Startup and shutdown
- Power maneuvering
- Abnormal Transients
- Operational transients
- Accident analyses
- "Unknown" Event Diagnosis (Symptom-oriented emergency
- Sensitivity Studies: Discussion of the overall transient
as a result of key plant parameter change and/or operator action
- The software of the simulator will be written in FORTRAN,
graphics software tools will be used.
- Simulator/operator interface will be user friendly. To facilitate
control actions and diagnostics by the operator, virtual control
panels that are similar to the real ones used in the simulated
system will be used.